A Basic Guide to the Internet
The Internet is a computer network made up of thousands of networks worldwide. No one knows exactly how many computers are connected to the Internet. It is certain, however, that these number in the millions.
No one is in charge of the Internet. There are organizations which develop technical aspects of this network and set standards for creating applications on it, but no governing body is in control. The Internet backbone, through which Internet traffic flows, is owned by private companies.
All computers on the Internet communicate with one another using the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol suite, abbreviated to TCP/IP. Computers on the Internet use a client/server architecture. This means that the remote server machine provides files and services to the user's local client machine. Software can be installed on a client computer to take advantage of the latest access technology.
An Internet user has access to a wide variety of services: electronic mail, file transfer, vast information resources, interest group membership, interactive collaboration, multimedia displays, real-time broadcasting, shopping opportunities, breaking news, and much more.
The Internet consists primarily of a variety of access protocols. Many of these protocols feature programs that allow users to search for and retrieve material made available by the protocol.
COMPONENTS OF THE INTERNET
WORLD WIDE WEB (WWW)
The World Wide Web (abbreviated as the Web or WWW) is a system of Internet servers that supports hypertext to access several Internet protocols on a single interface. Almost every protocol type available on the Internet is accessible on the Web. This includes e-mail, FTP, Telnet, and Usenet News. In addition to these, the World Wide Web has its own protocol: HyperText Transfer Protocol, or HTTP. These protocols will be explained later in this document.
The World Wide Web provides a single interface for accessing all these protocols. This creates a convenient and user-friendly environment. It is no longer necessary to be conversant in these protocols within separate, command-level environments. The Web gathers together these protocols into a single system. Because of this feature, and because of the Web's ability to work with multimedia and advanced programming languages, the Web is the fastest-growing component of the Internet.
The operation of the Web relies primarily on hypertext as its means of information retrieval. HyperText is a document containing words that connect to other documents. These words are called links and are selectable by the user. A single hypertext document can contain links to many documents. In the context of the Web, words or graphics may serve as links to other documents, images, video, and sound. Links may or may not follow a logical path, as each connection is programmed by the creator of the source document. Overall, the Web contains a complex virtual web of connections among a vast number of documents, graphics, videos, and sounds.
Producing hypertext for the Web is accomplished by creating documents with a language called HyperText Markup Language, or HTML. With HTML, tags are placed within the text to accomplish document formatting, visual features such as font size, italics and bold, and the creation of hypertext links. Graphics and multimedia may also be incorporated into an HTML document. HTML is an evolving language, with new tags being added as each upgrade of the language is developed and released. The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), led by Web founder Tim Berners-Lee, coordinates the efforts of standardizing HTML. The W3C now calls the language XHTML and considers it to be an application of the XML language standard.
The World Wide Web consists of files, called pages or home pages, containing links to documents and resources throughout the Internet.
For more complete information about the World Wide Web, see Understanding The World Wide Web.
Electronic mail, or e-mail, allows computer users locally and worldwide to exchange messages. Each user of e-mail has a mailbox address to which messages are sent. Messages sent through e-mail can arrive within a matter of seconds.
A powerful aspect of e-mail is the option to send electronic files to a person's e-mail address. Non-ASCII files, known as binary files, may be attached to e-mail messages. These files are referred to as MIME attachments.MIME stands for Multimedia Internet Mail Extension, and was developed to help e-mail software handle a variety of file types. For example, a document created in Microsoft Word can be attached to an e-mail message and retrieved by the recipient with the appropriate e-mail program. Many e-mail programs, including Eudora, Netscape Messenger, and Microsoft Outlook, offer the ability to read files written in HTML, which is itself a MIME type.
Telnet is a program that allows you to log into computers on the Internet and use online databases, library catalogs, chat services, and more. There are no graphics in Telnet sessions, just text. To Telnet to a computer, you must know its address. This can consist of words (locis.loc.gov) or numbers (188.8.131.52). Some services require you to connect to a specific port on the remote computer. In this case, type the port number after the Internet address. Example: telnet nri.reston.va.us 185.
Telnet is available on the World Wide Web. Probably the most common Web-based resources available through Telnet have been library catalogs, though most catalogs have since migrated to the Web. A link to a Telnet resource may look like any other link, but it will launch a Telnet session to make the connection. A Telnet program must be installed on your local computer and configured to your Web browser in order to work.
With the increasing popularity of the Web, Telnet has become less frequently used as a means of access to information on the Internet.
FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol. This is both a program and the method used to transfer files between computers. Anonymous FTP is an option that allows users to transfer files from thousands of host computers on the Internet to their personal computer account. FTP sites contain books, articles, software, games, images, sounds, multimedia, course work, data sets, and more.
If your computer is directly connected to the Internet via an Ethernet cable, you can use one of several PC software programs, such as WS_FTP for Windows, to conduct a file transfer.
FTP transfers can be performed on the World Wide Web without the need for special software. In this case, the Web browser will suffice. Whenever you download software from a Web site to your local machine, you are using FTP. You can also retrieve FTP files via search engines such as FtpFind, located at /http://www.ftpfind.com/. This option is easiest because you do not need to know FTP program commands.
E-MAIL DISCUSSION GROUPS
One of the benefits of the Internet is the opportunity it offers to people worldwide to communicate via e-mail. The Internet is home to a large community of individuals who carry out active discussions organized around topic-oriented forums distributed by e-mail. These are administered by software programs. Probably the most common program is the listserv.
A great variety of topics are covered by listservs, many of them academic in nature. When you subscribe to a listserv, messages from other subscribers are automatically sent to your electronic mailbox. You subscribe to a listserv by sending an e-mail message to a computer program called a listserver. Listservers are located on computer networks throughout the world. This program handles subscription information and distributes messages to and from subscribers. You must have a e-mail account to participate in a listserv discussion group. Visit Tile.net at /http://tile.net/ to see an example of a site that offers a searchablecollection of e-mail discussion groups.
Majordomo and Listproc are two other programs that administer e-mail discussion groups. The commands for subscribing to and managing your list memberships are similar to those of listserv.
Usenet News is a global electronic bulletin board system in which millions of computer users exchange information on a vast range of topics. The major difference between Usenet News and e-mail discussion groups is the fact that Usenet messages are stored on central computers, and users must connect to these computers to read or download the messages posted to these groups. This is distinct from e-mail distribution, in which messages arrive in the electronic mailboxes of each list member.
Usenet itself is a set of machines that exchanges messages, or articles, from Usenet discussion forums, called newsgroups. Usenet administrators control their own sites, and decide which (if any) newsgroups to sponsor and which remote newsgroups to allow into the system.
There are thousands of Usenet newsgroups in existence. While many are academic in nature, numerous newsgroups are organized around recreational topics. Much serious computer-related work takes place in Usenet discussions. A small number of e-mail discussion groups also exist as Usenet newsgroups.
The Usenet newsfeed can be read by a variety of newsreader software programs. For example, the Netscape suite comes with a newsreader program called Messenger. Newsreaders are also available as standalone products.
FAQ, RFC, FYI
FAQ stands for Frequently Asked Questions. These are periodic postings to Usenet newsgroups that contain a wealth of information related to the topic of the newsgroup. Many FAQs are quite extensive. FAQs are available by subscribing to individual Usenet newsgroups. A Web-based collection of FAQ resources has been collected by The Internet FAQ Consortium and is available at /http://www.faqs.org/.
RFC stands for Request for Comments. These are documents created by and distributed to the Internet community to help define the nuts and bolts of the Internet. They contain both technical specifications and general information.
FYI stands for For Your Information. These notes are a subset of RFCs and contain information of interest to new Internet users.
Links to indexes of all three of these information resources are available on the University Libraries Web site at /http://library.albany.edu/reference/faqs.html.
CHAT & INSTANT MESSENGING
Chat programs allow users on the Internet to communicate with each other by typing in real time. They are sometimes included as a feature of a Web site, where users can log into the "chat room" to exchange comments and information about the topics addressed on the site. Chat may take other, more wide-ranging forms. For example, America Online is well known for sponsoring a number of topical chat rooms.
Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is a service through which participants can communicate to each other on hundreds of channels. These channels are usually based on specific topics. While many topics are frivolous, substantive conversations are also taking place. To access IRC, you must use an IRC software program.
A variation of chat is the phenomenon of instant messenging. With instant messenging, a user on the Web can contact another user currently logged in and type a conversation. Most famous is America Online's Instant Messenger. ICQ, MSN and Yahoo are other commonly-used chat programs.
Other types of real-time communication are addressed in the tutorial Understanding the World Wide Web.
MUD stands for Multi User Dimension. MUDs, and their variations listed above, are multi-user virtual reality games based on simulated worlds. Traditionally text based, graphical MUDs now exist. There are MUDs of all kinds on the Internet, and many can be joined free of charge. For more information, read one of the FAQs devoted to MUDs available at the FAQ site at
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*Mobility, Social Media to Transform Financial Services: Finacle
A few years back, financial services expected you to stand in queue with a ‘withdrawal slip’ in hand. In 2013, banks came up with the ‘anywhere banking’ notion where they took banking service to your doorsteps. Come 2014 and banking may no longer be ‘anywhere’ in nature either.
Banking solutions provider Infosys Finacle, in a study predicted that with mobility, simplicity and technology dominating the banking trends, the financial service will go beyond ‘anywhere banking’ to ‘everywhere banking’. On a ten-point scale, the study predicted a very big role for technical advancements like cloud, apps, big data and social media.
“We are expecting huge adaptability of the coins system. The system as a whole is moving out of cash-based and these coins are making a big impact,” said Rajashekara V Maiya, associate VP & lead product manager, Infosys Finacle, told TOI.
Banks are looking at adoption of technology and the easy internet access as a tool to bolster their services. Mobile banking has picked up rapidly and by 2017, it is expected to cross 1 billion users. Mobile payments too are expected to do a combined transaction of $1 trillion by 2015. This has initiated the idea of ‘everywhere and every time’ banking.
*Alexa bogus rankings chobale knocked Grades Online Media
Bangladesh media now remains online news portal . The increasing demands of the reader has been introduced in the past few months hundreds of online news portal. Before a car can be increased rankings news portals that are running a different strategy than the competition . Because of that website will be the previous ryanke be easy for them to collect ads from advertisers . Ad retao more. So in addition to the news in the online news portalagulora Alexa ranking loss competition . And utilizing the opportunity to take huge amounts of money every month Alexa told the delegates. No wonder the thing - both the website and any other website pages Alexa viewer without the viewer 's own pages , or how many clicked on pejatite not found any where abouts datakame Alexa . But only the page viewer , unique visitors and site linking - depending on the page containing the ranking or position can be determined . Unique visitors to the concerned institutions to Alexa information pages and make the viewer - If e is how to determine the ranking of the web portal Alexa organization ? What is more interesting , with Google search to find Alexa is Sunday . But the Google Analytics - there 's no acceptance of grades Advertiser institutions . A survey , Alexa datakame 10 to 0 - The number of online portals - Google Analytics - Showing 3 of 35 thousands of pages in the viewer . But the report was written Alexa Rankings 30 - Staying out of nearly 3 million pages of many news portal showing the viewer . This can be understood how fake Alexa ranking !
What is the ranking of the website ?
Katatama website ranking position of your website in the crowd of online media as a tool to determine its exact location . If the tasks www.alexa.com, www.sitescore.com or more institutions like www.heatsync.com . Click to go to the site by typing the name of the website you can search on any websites without position rankings . Now the question is - can not find the location of the site in search of how reliable your website ? The reason behind this question is coming up - when you search for a website , enter the name of your organization if such report specific to each site ?
According to Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia , launched in 1996, ranking the diagnostic site Alexa , California, is a subsidiary site of Amazon . Cyber spesamyana Bruce jilatera other websites owned site has information about the ranking . This is shown in the Web Information Company from web traffic reports . According to experts , Alexa rankings on a site if there is a finding of fact that the report shows that it is indeed wrong . Those who use the toolbar Alexa, Alexa simply calculates bhijitai . So Alexa report is not neutral . Rather alleged bias . Therefore, Northern California District Federal Court in a case against 007 in the X April Alexa . Case Number - C -07-01716 RS . Show the details of the case have been already deleted from Wikipedia . Alexa has done this particular strategy .
Each of the popular daily newspaper in Bangladesh and now almost everyone has a web portal is constantly updated news . About this newspaper and the reader needs grades nook - kanache are here, it is even worldwide . But until the time of writing this report the merchant Alexa rankings on December 30 - just 3 of the daily newspaper area. On a magazine - Line Alexa too early, or have been forced to leave . This paper from the top of popularity . If you do not hold it directly to the general reader Alexa was questioned . The print media has been put forward that the other provisions of the newspaper web portal . However, the magazine Alexa authority after consulting the authorities , particularly portal ranking brings fast forward .
Although this paper is fairly popular , so it 's not been as Alexa If we look at the rankings that have been put forward in the rankings Alexa web portal , these grades are aware of the names people have heard before . This explanation , how fake Alexa ranking .
*New mobile application for women’s safety
As a “New Year gift to the female fraternity of the Capital,” the Delhi Multimodal Transport System (DIMTS) has come out with “Telltail”, a security application on android and smartphones.Soon it may be available on other phones. The free application will be launched in the third week of January and can be easily downloaded from Google Play.
Telltail, once downloaded on the phones, will help users reach their friends and family by pressing a button in case of an emergency. It will help the user raise a security alert by contacting the police, friends and family simultaneously. The application will also provide visual tracking information of the user.
The application will have three button options - “Track Me,” “Track By Vehicle” and “Panic Button” - by clicking which the user will reach her primary contacts within seconds.
The “Track Me” button will help the primary contact locate the tracking route of the user through the ‘map location’ icon on the screen. In the “Track By Vehicle” option, the user will just have to enter the vehicle number. This will help DIMTS track the vehicle status, and subsequently link the user with the monitored vehicle.
And on pressing the “Panic Button” for just three seconds, the user can generate an alert to the backend server of DIMTS. It will send detailed information of the location to the primary as well as other registered contacts through an SMS.
DIMTS managing director S.N. Sahai told The Hindu: “We are making sure that this application can also be used in GPS/GPRS phones. So, if GPS/GPRS is available, the application will send exact location details to the DIMTS server to the registered contacts along with the primary contacts but if GPS/GPRS is not available; the application will use SMS to send location information to the DIMTS server and registered contacts.”
Asked how the application differed from other available applications, Sahai said, “The Track by Vehicle’ option is not available in any other application. DIMTS is already tracking autos and buses in Delhi, it has a credible data on the same which will help us track a vehicle faster.”
“Also, since the GPS system drains off the battery very fast, and while using it, a mobile can go off and the user may not get required help in time. Therefore, we have made sure that in the ‘Track By Vehicle’ option, the user will not have to switch on his/her GPS. He/she just needs to enter the vehicle number so that the DIMTS can immediately notify the user about the details of the vehicle. At present, the application supports tracking of the new autos that are fitted with the GPS devices,” he added.
On a personal note, Sahai said: “My wife was once teased when she was travelling with me. I gift this application to the woman of Delhi as a tribute.”
*Japanese Firm Plans To Build Solar Cells Around The Moon And Beam The Power Back To Earth
At present, many houses and offices run on solar energy. And now it seems like it’s time for Earth to run on solar energy. Japan’s leading engineering firm Shimizu Corporation has planned to build an array of solar cells around the Moon’s equator in order to harvest solar energy and beam it back to Earth. The project is called Luna Ring.
Tokyo-based Shimizu Corporation wants to lay a belt of solar panels around the equator of our orbiting neighbour and then relay the constant supply of energy to “receiving stations” on Earth by way of lasers or microwave transmission. The belt of solar panels around the Moon’s equator will be 250 miles wide and 6,800 miles long.
The solar panels will be set up in such a way that they will “generate a continuous stream of power from the side of the Moon that’s always facing the Sun, and beam it down to Earth from the side that’s in shadow.” The Luna Ring project will be able to send 13,000 terawatts of power to Earth constantly.
Shimizu Corporation has iterated on its site, “A shift from economical use of limited resources to the unlimited use of clean energy is the ultimate dream of mankind. The Luna Ring … translates this dream into reality through ingenious ideas coupled with advanced space technologies.”
The company hasn’t revealed the cost for building 250 mile wide array of solar cells around the Moon’s equator. But the company hopes that it will be able to start construction by 2035. The company will develop robots and automated equipment to mine the Moon’s natural resources and produce concrete and the solar cells required for the mission.
Source: Shimizu Corporation